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The God Particle / Higgs Boson / Elementary Particle

  • Higgs boson are the elementary particles (shapeless and non-spinning) formed at the beginning of the universe when the temperature of the universe was several Quadrillion degrees.
Credit: CERN/AP
  • As the temperature cooled while the universe expanded, the higgs particles frozed in the universe. The temperature of the universe was about 4 Quadrillion degrees cold when the higgs particles froze. 

  • Higgs particles actually explains the formation of atoms. The electrons revolve around the nucleus of atom as it is surrounded by the higgs particles that froze in the universe, preventing its escape outside the orbits of electrons. They would escape away travelling with the speed of light in the absence of the boson. 


  • If all the higgs particles suddenly disappeard from the universe, all the matters in universe would disintegrate into fragments of atomic particles in less than a billionth of a second.

  • Higgs particles were discovered at CERN's Large Hedron Collider, which consists of a 27 Kilometre ring of superconducting magnets in a underground tunnel 100m inside the earth. 

  • The LHC consists of a 27-kilometre ring of superconducting magnets made from special cables. The magnets are maintained at a temperature of -273.1 degrees (temperature colder than in space) for the superconductivity without resistance and loss of energy.


  • At CERN Proton particles were accelerated at nearly at the speed of light and collided which presumably pictured the early stages of the Big Bang. 


  • Higgs particles are called 'God Particles' because they are the basis for the formation of atoms from protons and electrons and for keeping the order of everything the universe. Higgs boson theory explains why the things around have mass.

  •  Peter Higgs and the team of Fran├žois Englert and Robert Brout proposed the theory about the existence of this elementary particle in 1964 (about 50 Years ago) of this discovery. 

What you need to know about the Higgs Boson: The god particle

The God Particle / Higgs Boson / Elementary Particle

  • Higgs boson are the elementary particles (shapeless and non-spinning) formed at the beginning of the universe when the temperature of the universe was several Quadrillion degrees.
Credit: CERN/AP
  • As the temperature cooled while the universe expanded, the higgs particles frozed in the universe. The temperature of the universe was about 4 Quadrillion degrees cold when the higgs particles froze. 

  • Higgs particles actually explains the formation of atoms. The electrons revolve around the nucleus of atom as it is surrounded by the higgs particles that froze in the universe, preventing its escape outside the orbits of electrons. They would escape away travelling with the speed of light in the absence of the boson. 


  • If all the higgs particles suddenly disappeard from the universe, all the matters in universe would disintegrate into fragments of atomic particles in less than a billionth of a second.

  • Higgs particles were discovered at CERN's Large Hedron Collider, which consists of a 27 Kilometre ring of superconducting magnets in a underground tunnel 100m inside the earth. 

  • The LHC consists of a 27-kilometre ring of superconducting magnets made from special cables. The magnets are maintained at a temperature of -273.1 degrees (temperature colder than in space) for the superconductivity without resistance and loss of energy.


  • At CERN Proton particles were accelerated at nearly at the speed of light and collided which presumably pictured the early stages of the Big Bang. 


  • Higgs particles are called 'God Particles' because they are the basis for the formation of atoms from protons and electrons and for keeping the order of everything the universe. Higgs boson theory explains why the things around have mass.

  •  Peter Higgs and the team of Fran├žois Englert and Robert Brout proposed the theory about the existence of this elementary particle in 1964 (about 50 Years ago) of this discovery. 

Millions of stars light in the universe and some of them emit enough light to touch the surface of Earth. These are the stars which make up our night sky. What appear to be tiny droplets of light spread over the horizon are in fact large mega-masses fueled with undergoing massive scale nuclear reactions.



In the clear night sky, thousands of stars are visible to the naked eyes. Depending on the time of year, various group of stars come into the visible range and can be effortlessly observed. Staring into the sky from a open garden, in the middle of the city of Doha, there appear a small array of stars around the waxing moon on the clear night of April, which raised questioned on their visibility from different places.

Are lesser number of stars visible from this region of the Earth? Where do they hide?

The few reasons  are:


Pollution

Pollutants in air decrease the visibility. Large suspended dust particles in the air block the tints of light travelling from the stars to the Earth. Furthermore, the west winds blowing from the sandy deserts in middle east carry tiny dust and sand particles which don't easily settle, largely decreasing the visibility of the sky which appears milky even during the day. And lets not mention the monoxide rich vehicle exhausts which spreads in the air to bar the observer's view all the way up.


Climate

Fog, frosts and snow are never expected in this region. Cloud and rain are rare in the desert land. There are very less additional climatic factors that hinder the night visibility other than the humidity. Higher humidity multiplies the condensation factor and decreases visibility. In places close to the sea, not even during the dry seasons the the humidity factor can be expected low. The relatively colder wind at night from the ocean, facilitates the condensation of the water vapor resulting in blurred sky might be the other cause in decreasing the night visibility of sky.


Light Pollution

In the large cities, there is abundance of light sources in the city itself. The human eyes, when in the bright places is unable to see dim light - reason being the dilation of the pupil to protect the excess of the light entering the eyes. In cities, already with excessive light sources create a condition called light pollution, which almost creates a sphere of brightness covering the whole place (as in the picture). It outshines the tiny dots of starlight in the dark sky, while strong light sources closer to eyes is more visualized. Due to higher dilation of pupil, the observer is unable to see the distant stars in the sky from a place already with subsequent light.

The picture of Doha Corniche, only two stars are visible in the immensely lightened sky.

Why much of the stars are not visible in the Qatar's sky?

Millions of stars light in the universe and some of them emit enough light to touch the surface of Earth. These are the stars which make up our night sky. What appear to be tiny droplets of light spread over the horizon are in fact large mega-masses fueled with undergoing massive scale nuclear reactions.



In the clear night sky, thousands of stars are visible to the naked eyes. Depending on the time of year, various group of stars come into the visible range and can be effortlessly observed. Staring into the sky from a open garden, in the middle of the city of Doha, there appear a small array of stars around the waxing moon on the clear night of April, which raised questioned on their visibility from different places.

Are lesser number of stars visible from this region of the Earth? Where do they hide?

The few reasons  are:


Pollution

Pollutants in air decrease the visibility. Large suspended dust particles in the air block the tints of light travelling from the stars to the Earth. Furthermore, the west winds blowing from the sandy deserts in middle east carry tiny dust and sand particles which don't easily settle, largely decreasing the visibility of the sky which appears milky even during the day. And lets not mention the monoxide rich vehicle exhausts which spreads in the air to bar the observer's view all the way up.


Climate

Fog, frosts and snow are never expected in this region. Cloud and rain are rare in the desert land. There are very less additional climatic factors that hinder the night visibility other than the humidity. Higher humidity multiplies the condensation factor and decreases visibility. In places close to the sea, not even during the dry seasons the the humidity factor can be expected low. The relatively colder wind at night from the ocean, facilitates the condensation of the water vapor resulting in blurred sky might be the other cause in decreasing the night visibility of sky.


Light Pollution

In the large cities, there is abundance of light sources in the city itself. The human eyes, when in the bright places is unable to see dim light - reason being the dilation of the pupil to protect the excess of the light entering the eyes. In cities, already with excessive light sources create a condition called light pollution, which almost creates a sphere of brightness covering the whole place (as in the picture). It outshines the tiny dots of starlight in the dark sky, while strong light sources closer to eyes is more visualized. Due to higher dilation of pupil, the observer is unable to see the distant stars in the sky from a place already with subsequent light.

The picture of Doha Corniche, only two stars are visible in the immensely lightened sky.


Recently discoverd four heavy elements by an international array of scientists has been formally added to the periodic table.




International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry(IUPAC) announced the addition of the elements to the periodic table for the completion of the seventh row. The elements adde are
ununtrium, (Uut or element 113),
ununpentium (Uup, element 115),
ununseptium (Uus, element 117), and
ununoctium (Uuo, element 118).

temporarily named by the Union.

All the new elements added are synthetic (man made) and do not occur naturally on earth.


The discovery credit for the element 113 is to the scientists of Japan's Riken Institute after IUPAC verified successful creation the new synthetic element three times from 2004 to 2012.

It is the first element on the periodic table to be discovered and named by Asian scientists, Riken said.

Elemets 115, 117 and 118 as stated by IUPAC were discovered by joint efforts between the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, California, USA; and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA.

IUPAC have invited for proposing permanent names for the newly synthesized elements.

The discoveries and addition of the elements in the periodic table have started infinite possibilities of synthesized elements discovery and experimentation in the long run.


Periodic Table Updated: With Four Newly Synthesized Elements

Recently discoverd four heavy elements by an international array of scientists has been formally added to the periodic table.




International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry(IUPAC) announced the addition of the elements to the periodic table for the completion of the seventh row. The elements adde are
ununtrium, (Uut or element 113),
ununpentium (Uup, element 115),
ununseptium (Uus, element 117), and
ununoctium (Uuo, element 118).

temporarily named by the Union.

All the new elements added are synthetic (man made) and do not occur naturally on earth.


The discovery credit for the element 113 is to the scientists of Japan's Riken Institute after IUPAC verified successful creation the new synthetic element three times from 2004 to 2012.

It is the first element on the periodic table to be discovered and named by Asian scientists, Riken said.

Elemets 115, 117 and 118 as stated by IUPAC were discovered by joint efforts between the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, California, USA; and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA.

IUPAC have invited for proposing permanent names for the newly synthesized elements.

The discoveries and addition of the elements in the periodic table have started infinite possibilities of synthesized elements discovery and experimentation in the long run.







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